#TITLE#How to Build an Athletic Fence with Sports Sheeting#/TITLE#
Whenever you hear or read about a professional team researching the possibility of relocating to another city, the desire for a new stadium is often the primary reason. A sparkling new stadium filled with modern amenities attracts fans in droves — and that generates significant revenues for the group and the local businesses that surround the facility such as bars, restaurants, hotels and retail stores. The NFL’s Oakland Raiders are the latest instance of a game’s team making a move in search of greener pastures. Playing from the antiquated Oakland Coliseum, which was constructed more than 50 years back, the group generated a mere $69 million in stadium revenues in 2015, according to Forbes magazine. By comparison, the Dallas Cowboys, playing at the pristine, state-of-the-art AT&T Stadium, raked in more than $440 million. Unable to get financial support to construct a new stadium in Oakland, the team’s ownership sought and obtained approval from the league to move to Las Vegas, where it will play at a recently assembled 65,000-seat domed stadium (price tag: $1.9 billion) tentatively scheduled for completion in 2020. Annual earnings forecasts for the new facility range from $250-$350 million.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE SPORTS STADIUM
While the origins of this sports stadium can be traced to the ancient Greeks, the first modern facilities were built in the mid-to-late 19th century. These sport venues were designed with practicality in mind — the goal was to hold as many audiences as possible, and amenities were virtually non-existent. The majority of these early structures were single-purpose facilities constructed mainly of wood, several of which were destroyed by fire. Goodison Park, a Liverpool, England soccer stadium that opened in 1892, was the first sports facility to feature a concrete-and-steel construction. The trend of single-purpose stadiums lasted through much of the 20th century. Facilities such as Fenway Park in Boston, which opened in 1912, and Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and Wrigley Field in Chicago, both of which were finished in 1914, were especially built for baseball. Designed to blend into the surrounding city neighborhoods, these facilities featured relatively little seating capacities and provided fans with a romantic, up-close ballpark experience that almost made them feel as if they were part of the activity.
THE BIRTH OF THE MULTIPURPOSE STADIUM
The post-World War II migration of Americans from the city to the suburbs combined with the growth in popularity of professional football resulted in the birth of the multipurpose sports stadium concept, which served as the model for the facilities constructed during the 1960s and 1970s. Designed for both soccer and baseball, these round, symmetrical concrete facilities were typically constructed in suburban locations and provided easy access by interstate highway. Spacious parking lots were required to accommodate the heavy vehicle traffic, since these facilities were inaccessible via the cities’ mass transit systems. Examples of this multipurpose stadium concept included Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium in Washington, D.C.; Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia; Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh; Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium; and Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego. The Houston Astrodome, which opened in 1965, was the world’s first multipurpose stadium to feature a domed roof and an artificial turf field.
THE RETURN TO THE SINGLE-PURPOSE STADIUM CONCEPT
While multipurpose stadiums offered the benefit of practicality and flexibility, the uninspired cookie-cutter design featured in the majority of these facilities eventually fell out of favor with audiences, particularly old-school baseball fans who longed for a return to the local ballpark look and feel. This caused the growth of the retro-classic concept inspired by older facilities like Wrigley Field and Fenway Park. The first of this retro-classic ballparks was Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore. Completed in 1992, Camden Yards rests on the website of an old B&O railroad yard in South Baltimore and comes with a sprawling, 1,100-foot-long, eight-story refurbished railroad warehouse as a backdrop. Other stadiums inspired by the Camden Yards model include Progressive Field in Cleveland, PNC Park in Pittsburgh, Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, AT&T Park in San Francisco and Miller Park in Milwaukee. These facilities combine the retro look and feel with all the modern features and amenities required to meet the requirements of the 21st-century sports enthusiast. These new baseball stadiums include expansive scoreboards and video replay screens, as well as natural grass or synthetic turf fields which are softer than artificial turf.
CURRENT AND FUTURE STADIUM DESIGN TRENDS
While the traditional stadium design catered to families, modern stadiums to appeal to the 18-to-34-year-old demographic. These younger individuals view going to a sporting event as a whole entertainment experience that entails far more than watching a ball game. The design of newer facilities typically incorporates features like pedestrian malls, entertainment plazas and concourses situated outside the stadium that allow fans to dine, shop and socialize before and after the game. Now’s facilities also feature numerous seating environments that extend well beyond the standard stadium seat in the middle of a crowded row of spectators. Premium seating options include private suites which resemble living rooms and can accommodate 10-15 fans. These suites include a private entrance from the stadium concourse and also have features such as buffets, bars, television screens and computers with Internet access. Some stadiums even provide field suites situated in the front row which place fans right on top of the activity. Stadium amenities also have come a long way, regarding the variety of food choices. Along with the hot dog, beer and bag of peanuts, many stadiums provide a broad assortment of high-end cuisine and craft beers and wine to cater to a younger, upscale crowd. Menu choices at AT&T Stadium in Dallas, widely regarded as the crown jewel of NFL facilities, include everything from chicken fried quail to a brisket sandwich on pretzel bread smothered in melted onions, piquillo peppers and melted cheddar cheese. While the prevalence of single-purpose stadiums continues, there are signs of an eventual return to the multipurpose concept. According to John Rhodes, Director of Sports, Recreation and Entertainment at the London office of HOK, the architectural firm largely responsible for creating the Camden Yards concept, the multipurpose design was gaining traction across Europe over the past decade. Rhodes indicates there is an increasing shift toward developing more civic-type facilities which can host a wide array of athletic and community events. Sustainability has also become a vital element in all new stadium projects to comply with LEED requirements. In a recent StarTalk Radio episode, Stadiums of the Future, Neil deGrasse Tyson dives into modern stadium designs and tech with co-hosts Gary O’Reilly and Chuck Nice and Benjamin Brillat of IBM Sports. Bejamin Brillat discusses how these improvements start right from when the stadium is just a hole in the ground. They bury the conduit from the concrete rightbefore it gets poured. Future designs won’t only change how fans encounter a game, but it could also change the sport.